How To Write A Literature Review Example

A literature review is a critical and comprehensive analysis of published research literature and scholarly sources on a specific topic or research question. The best literature review involves examining, summarizing, evaluating, and synthesizing existing literature to identify gaps, trends, patterns, and controversies in the field of study. This piece of academic writing demonstrates understanding and knowledge of the academic literature on a specific topic.

The literature review comprises two parts, the first part is the content covering existing research, theories, and evidence and the second part is the writer’s evaluation and discussion of this content. The best literature review not just summarizes sources but also analyzes and evaluates them to provide a clear picture of the state of knowledge on the subject. Literature reviews are usually written in the sciences and social sciences, experiment and lab reports, and occasionally in the humanities. So if you are looking for the best literature review example or assignment help service then All Assignment Support should be your go-to choice.

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Literature Review Objectives

Literature reviews are written to provide a handy guide to a particular topic and if one has limited time to conduct research then literature reviews provide an overview. Literature reviews for professionals are vital reports that keep them updated with the trend of their field, and for scholars, the depth and breadth of literature review highlight a writer’s credibility in his/her field.

It also provides a solid background for a research paper’s investigation, as one must have comprehensive knowledge of the literature for writing most research papers. The objectives of a literature review can vary depending on the specific research context and goals. However, some common objectives of conducting a literature review are:

Familiarize with Existing Knowledge

A literature review helps researchers gain a comprehensive understanding of the existing body of knowledge and research on a specific topic. It provides an overview of relevant theories, concepts, methodologies, and findings in the field.

Identify Research Gaps

By critically analyzing existing literature, researchers can identify gaps, inconsistencies, or unresolved issues in the current knowledge base. This helps in determining areas where further research is needed or where new insights can be generated.

Define Research Questions or Hypotheses

A literature review helps in refining research questions or formulating hypotheses based on the gaps identified. It guides researchers in developing focused and meaningful research objectives that are built upon existing knowledge.

Provide a Theoretical Framework

It helps establish a theoretical framework or conceptual framework for the research and allows researchers to place their study within the existing theoretical perspectives and frameworks in the field.

Overall, the objectives of a literature review are to establish a knowledge base, identify gaps, guide research questions and hypotheses, inform research design, and contribute to the overall understanding and advancement of a specific research field.

Characteristics of an Effective Literature Review

A literature review is a scholarly paper presenting the current knowledge including substantive findings along with theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. Literature reviews do not report new or original experimental work but are secondary sources associated with academic-oriented literature.

The literature review forms a basis for research in almost every academic field. An effective literature review is a critical component of academic research that provides a comprehensive understanding of existing knowledge, theories, and research findings on a specific topic. Here are some key characteristics of an effective literature review:

  • The literature review should have a clear and well-defined research objective or research question.
  • An effective literature review must cover a wide range of relevant and current sources
  • It should encompass different perspectives, theories, and research methodologies related to the topic.
  • It should employ a systematic approach to identify and select relevant literature.
  • An effective literature review goes beyond summarizing existing studies and critically evaluates the quality, methodology, and findings of each source, identifying strengths, and weaknesses.
  • It should synthesize the findings from various studies, identifying common themes, patterns, and trends.
  • It points out gaps where further investigation is needed or where contradictory findings exist and identification of research gaps can help guide future research directions.
  • It should be well-structured and clearly written, with a logical flow of ideas.

Types of Literature Review

There are different types of literature reviews each having different purposes and approaches to examine the existing literature. Some of the common types of literature review include:

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Argumentative Literature Review

An argumentative literature review is a type of literature review that not only summarizes and evaluates existing research but also presents an argument or a specific point of view on the topic being reviewed.

It goes beyond providing a neutral overview and incorporates the author’s own perspective and analysis into the review. To gain a good understanding of this type of literature review one can go through argumentative literature review examples.

Narrative Literature Review

A narrative literature review is the most common type of literature review that focuses on providing a descriptive summary and synthesis of existing research studies, theories, and concepts related to a specific topic. Unlike a systematic literature review that follows a structured methodology, a narrative review adopts a more narrative or storytelling approach to present the information.

Theoretical Literature Review

A theoretical literature review is a type of literature review that focuses on examining and analyzing existing theories, concepts, frameworks, and models in relation to a particular research topic or question. It aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the theoretical foundations and perspectives relevant to the subject of study.

Historical Literature Review

A historical literature review, also known as a historical review of literature, is a type of literature review that focuses on examining and analyzing the existing body of literature related to a specific research topic within a historical context. It involves a comprehensive exploration of primary and secondary sources, including books, articles, archival documents, and other historical records.

Systematic Literature Review

A systematic literature review is a rigorous and structured approach to reviewing and analyzing existing literature on a specific research topic. It involves a comprehensive and systematic search, selection, and evaluation of relevant studies, followed by a synthesis and critical analysis of the findings. The primary goal of a systematic literature review is to provide an unbiased and evidence-based summary of the existing research in order to answer specific research questions or address gaps in knowledge.

Integrative Literature Review

An integrative literature review is a type of literature review that focuses on synthesizing and integrating findings from multiple research studies to gain a broader understanding of a specific topic. It goes beyond simply summarizing individual studies and aims to identify patterns, themes, and relationships across the literature.

Key Strategies for Writing the Literature Review

Before writing a literature review, it is essential to go through some literature review examples to gain an idea. One should also take the following vital steps to ensure a well-structured and effective review. Here are the key steps to consider:

Define the Research Topic

Clearly define the research topic or research question that your literature review will address. This will help you maintain focus and identify the specific areas of literature to explore.

Conduct Preliminary Research

Start with preliminary research to gain a broad understanding of the topic and identify key concepts, theories, or variables related to your research question. This will help you develop a foundation for your literature review.

Set Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria

Establish specific criteria to determine which studies and sources will be included in your literature review. Consider factors such as publication date, study design, geographical location, or any other relevant criteria based on your research objectives.

Develop a Search Strategy

Design a comprehensive search strategy to identify relevant literature. Utilize academic databases, library catalogs, search engines, and other resources to conduct a systematic search. Use relevant keywords, Boolean operators, and filters to refine your search and retrieve the most relevant studies.

Select and Evaluate Sources

Review the search results and select the most relevant sources for your literature review. Evaluate the credibility, reliability, and quality of the sources using criteria such as peer-review status, author credentials, and the methodology employed.

Organize and Analyze the Literature

Organize the selected literature into meaningful categories or themes based on the research topic or research questions. Identify commonalities, patterns, and gaps in the literature to guide the structure of your review.

Create an Outline

Develop an outline or framework for your literature review to provide a logical and coherent structure. Organize the sections based on the themes or categories you identified during the analysis of the literature.

Synthesize the Literature

Synthesize the information from the selected studies and critically analyze the findings, theories, or concepts. Look for connections, contradictions, or gaps in the literature and provide a balanced and objective analysis of the existing knowledge.

Write the Literature Review

Begin writing your literature review following the structure and organization outlined in your outline. Present the information in a clear and coherent manner, making sure to properly cite and reference the sources you have used.

Revise and Edit

Review and revise your literature review for clarity, coherence, and accuracy. Ensure that the review flows logically, the ideas are well-developed, and the language is concise and precise. Pay attention to grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors.

Taking these vital steps before writing a literature review will help you establish a strong foundation, organize your thoughts, and ensure a comprehensive and well-structured review that contributes to your research objectives.

A Brief Comparison Between Literature Review and an Essay

A literature review and an essay are distinct forms of academic writing that serve different purposes and follow different structures. While both a literature review and an essay are academic writing, they differ in terms of purpose, focus, structure, sources, tone, and style.

Understanding these differences is crucial to effectively engage with each type of writing and meet the specific requirements of the task at hand. Here are the key differences between a literature review and an essay:

  • A literature review’s purpose is to evaluate and summarize the current state of knowledge on the topic and identify gaps or areas for further research, whereas an essay typically presents an argument or thesis statement on a specific topic and supports it with evidence, analysis, and logical reasoning.
  • A literature review focuses on examining and synthesizing existing research and scholarly literature whereas an essay focuses on presenting and developing a central argument or idea, providing supporting evidence, and exploring different perspectives.
  • A literature review structure includes an introduction, methodology, main body sections, and a conclusion; on the other hand, an essay follows an introduction, body paragraphs, and a conclusion structure.
  • A literature review relies on academic sources like peer-reviewed journal articles, books, conference papers, and other scholarly works. In contrast, an essay may draw from a variety of sources, including academic articles, books, newspaper articles, interviews, personal experiences, or other forms of evidence.
  • A literature review is typically written in a formal and objective tone, presenting a balanced analysis of the literature and avoiding personal opinions or subjective statements whereas an essay may adopt a more subjective or argumentative tone and allows for personal reflection and interpretation.
  • A literature review conclusion summarizes the main findings, identifies gaps or areas for future research, and may suggest implications for practice or policy. On the other hand, an essay conclusion restates the thesis statement and provides a summary of the main points presented in the body.
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How to Write a Literature Review?

Writing a literature review involves a systematic process to critically analyze and synthesize existing literature on a specific research topic. Literature review writing involves several key steps to ensure a comprehensive and well-structured review.

By following below given steps, you can write a comprehensive and well-structured literature review that demonstrates your understanding of the research topic and contributes to the existing body of knowledge. Here are the key steps to consider when writing a literature review:

  • Understand and define the scope and objectives
  • Conduct a thorough literature search using search engines, library catalogs, and academic databases
  • Evaluate the credibility, relevance, and quality of the identified sources.
  • Select the most relevant and reliable sources that answer a research question or address objectives.
  • Organize the selected literature based on themes, concepts, or key ideas that emerge from the sources
  • Create an outline for your literature review to guide your writing process and outline the main sections and subheadings based on the themes.
  • Start writing by summarizing the main findings, theories, methodologies, and arguments from each selected source.
  • Critically analyze and evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, and limitations of the studies and identifies patterns, gaps, and areas of agreement or disagreement within the literature.
  • Synthesize the findings from the summarized sources to identify overarching themes, theories, or concepts that emerge from the literature.
  • Provide a critical evaluation of the literature by identifying any biases, methodological limitations, or gaps in the existing research.
  • Write your literature review based on the outline, start with an introduction then develop the main body, provide summaries, analysis, and synthesis of the literature, and then end with a conclusion.
  • Review your literature review for clarity, coherence, and accuracy, and make sure that the ideas flow logically, the writing is concise and precise, and the transitions between paragraphs are smooth.
  • Check for grammatical, spelling, and punctuation errors. Revise as needed to improve the overall quality and effectiveness of your literature review.
  • Remember to use proper citation and referencing formats, such as APA or MLA, throughout your literature review to acknowledge the sources and give credit to the original authors.

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Literature Review Example FAQs

Literature reviews differ from other academic writing by not aiming to present new research or advocate a specific viewpoint. Their objective is to offer a comprehensive and impartial overview of existing literature. These reviews encompass a broader array of sources, such as books, journal articles, government reports, and conference proceedings. Structurally distinct, they typically commence with an introduction outlining the topic and purpose, followed by a main body that analyzes existing literature, and a conclusion highlighting key findings and identifying research gaps.


A literature review is an important part of academic research and can also be a part of a thesis, dissertation, article, or grant proposal. A literature review typically includes an introduction outlining the topic and purpose, a comprehensive summary and analysis of existing literature, and a conclusion highlighting key findings and identifying research gaps. It draws from diverse sources such as books, journal articles, and government reports. The review does not present new research but aims to provide an objective overview, helping researchers understand the topic and contributing to a field's existing knowledge.


Select relevant sources for a literature review by defining specific criteria, such as publication date, credibility of the author and publisher, and the source's academic relevance. Focus on peer-reviewed journals, authoritative books, and reputable conference proceedings. Use keywords and search databases effectively, considering the source's contribution to the research topic. Evaluate the methodology and conclusions of each source to ensure its alignment with your review's objectives, helping build a robust foundation of relevant and reliable information. While selecting sources for a literature review, consider relevance, recent, credible, and original.


Authors can structure a literature review in various ways, adopting strategies like topical order, organizing around main topics or issues; chronological order, arranging by publication dates; problem-cause-solution order, presenting information by problem, cause, and solution; thematic order, centering around a specific topic or issue; and methodological order, emphasizing the methods employed by researchers or writers. These approaches offer flexibility in presenting information and contribute to a cohesive and comprehensive review of existing literature on a given subject.

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To critically evaluate sources for a literature review, assess credibility by considering the author's expertise, publication venue, and potential biases. Examine the methodology for rigor and relevance to your research. Scrutinize the publication date to ensure currency. Compare sources to identify patterns, contradictions, or gaps. Prioritize peer-reviewed articles and authoritative books. Evaluate the overall impact of each source on your review's coherence and depth, ensuring that selected sources contribute substantively to your research topic.


Common mistakes in a literature review include lack of organization, failure to critically evaluate sources, summarizing sources without analysis, insufficient coverage of relevant literature, and neglecting to identify research gaps. Avoid bias, overly descriptive writing, and overlooking recent publications. Maintain a clear focus on your research question and objectives. Ensure proper citation and referencing. Lastly, don't disregard conflicting viewpoints—acknowledge them and address how they contribute to the overall understanding of your topic.


A literature review enhances the research process by providing a comprehensive understanding of existing knowledge on a topic. It identifies gaps, informs research questions, and guides methodology. It aids in selecting appropriate research methods and supports argumentation. By synthesizing diverse sources, it forms a foundation for the study, fostering credibility. Ultimately, a literature review contributes by placing the research in context, demonstrating its significance, and showcasing the researcher's awareness of the field's current state.


Ethical considerations in a literature review involve proper citation to credit original authors, avoiding plagiarism, and ensuring transparency in source selection. It's crucial to represent sources accurately and objectively, acknowledging diverse viewpoints. Avoid biased interpretations and adhere to ethical guidelines set by institutions. Respect intellectual property rights, obtain permissions when necessary, and prioritize the ethical use of information. Upholding these principles ensures academic integrity and contributes to the ethical conduct of research.


Identifying gaps in existing literature involves noting inconsistencies, contradictions, or areas of limited research in reviewed studies. Assess if there's a consensus on a topic or if questions remain unanswered. Look for unexplored dimensions or recent developments. Compare methodologies and findings across studies to pinpoint areas with scant or conflicting information. By critically evaluating the literature, researchers can discern gaps, paving the way for valuable contributions and shaping the focus of their research.


Theoretical frameworks in a literature review provide a conceptual foundation, guiding the interpretation and synthesis of existing research. They help organize knowledge, identify key concepts, and establish connections between studies. By employing theoretical frameworks, researchers gain a structured perspective on their topic, enhancing the understanding of relationships and trends within the literature. This framework acts as a lens through which researchers can analyze and interpret the findings of previous studies, contributing to a coherent and informed research narrative.


A literature review aids in formulating research questions by revealing gaps, controversies, and existing knowledge in a specific area. By critically evaluating previous studies, researchers identify unanswered questions, areas with conflicting findings, or emerging trends. This informs the development of focused and relevant research questions that contribute to addressing gaps in knowledge. The literature review guides researchers in framing inquiries that build upon and extend existing understanding, enhancing the overall quality and significance of the research.


Approaches to synthesizing literature in a review include narrative synthesis, which presents a coherent summary of studies; thematic synthesis, organizing findings into themes; theoretical synthesis, applying a theoretical framework; and meta-analysis, statistically combining data from multiple studies. These methods vary in depth and structure but aim to provide a comprehensive understanding of the literature. Researchers select an approach based on their research question, available data, and the desired level of analysis and synthesis.


Effectively summarizing findings in a literature review involves identifying key themes, trends, and commonalities across sources. Concisely present each study's main contributions and key results, emphasizing their relevance to the research question. Maintain clarity and coherence by organizing summaries logically and using cohesive language. Highlight any contradictions or gaps in the existing literature. This synthesis ensures a clear and comprehensive overview of relevant findings, contributing to the overall coherence and strength of the literature review.


Literature gains profound meaning with historical context, as memories, stories, and characters derive significance from it. A robust grasp of a work's historical backdrop enhances our comprehension and appreciation of the narrative. Exploring historical events within literature allows us to discern the motivations driving characters' actions, deepening our insight into human behavior and enriching the overall analysis of the literary work.


Conflicting viewpoints in the literature are addressed by providing research that disproves opposing argument, signal the opposing viewpoint, compare and contrast conflicting information with other information, and convincingly responds to counterarguments. One can also address conflicting viewpoints in the literature by acknowledging diverse perspectives and presenting a balanced evaluation. Analyze the context, methodologies, and evidence supporting each viewpoint. Highlight areas of agreement or disagreement, emphasizing the complexity of the issue. Offer insights into potential reasons for discrepancies. This nuanced approach demonstrates a comprehensive understanding of the topic and encourages critical thinking, enriching the literature review with a nuanced and well-rounded perspective.


A literature review can support existing theories by consolidating evidence and confirming their validity. Alternatively, it may challenge theories by identifying contradictory findings, gaps, or evolving perspectives. Critical analysis of the literature allows researchers to discern the robustness of existing theories, refining or expanding them based on the synthesized knowledge. By integrating new insights, a literature review contributes to the dynamic evolution of theories, fostering a nuanced understanding of the subject matter.


Maintain objectivity in a literature review by clearly defining criteria for source selection, avoiding bias in search terms, and using a diverse range of reputable sources. Evaluate each source impartially, acknowledging potential limitations. Present findings objectively without favoring specific viewpoints. Use neutral language and refrain from personal opinions. Regularly reassess your own biases and preconceptions to ensure an unbiased interpretation of the literature, fostering credibility and reliability in the review.


Peer-reviewed articles offer credibility and rigor but may lack breadth. Books provide in-depth analysis but might be less current. Conference papers offer recent findings but may lack extensive peer review. Diversifying sources enhances a comprehensive view but demands critical evaluation. Careful selection balances depth and breadth. Evaluating biases and quality is crucial. A combination of sources strengthens a literature review, leveraging the strengths of each while mitigating their respective limitations.

Assess source credibility by evaluating author expertise, publication venue reputation, and potential biases. Scrutinize methodologies for rigor and relevance. Check for peer review in academic journals. Analyze citations and references to gauge the source's impact. Consider the source's date to ensure currency. Examine the overall quality of writing and presentation. Combining these factors allows researchers to determine the reliability and credibility of sources, ensuring a solid foundation for a trustworthy literature review.


Tools like Zotero, EndNote, and Mendeley help manage and organize literature review sources. They facilitate citation management, PDF organization, and collaboration. Online databases such as PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar assist in sourcing relevant articles. Note-taking apps like Evernote or OneNote can aid in summarizing key points. Integrating these tools streamlines the literature review process, enhancing efficiency and organization in source management.


The scope of a literature review dictates its depth and breadth. A narrow scope focuses intensely on specific aspects, allowing for in-depth analysis but limiting the overall coverage. A broader scope encompasses a wide range of topics, offering comprehensive coverage but sacrificing depth. Balancing scope is crucial; a well-defined scope ensures relevance, while a thoughtful expansion accommodates essential diversity, optimizing the literature review's depth and breadth to align with research objectives.

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